This video explores the fundamental lower limits of space and time by considering what would happen if two electrons are squeezed closer and closer together. After discussing the ratio of electric and gravitational forces, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is combined with Einstein’s theory of special relativity to show that at very small distance scales the strength of gravity becomes comparable to the electrostatic force. It is shown that when the two electrons are squeezed to a distance equal to the Planck length, a black hole form, placing a fundamental lower limit on the distances that can be meaningfully probed. It is shown that the Planck length, mass and time can all be derived using dimensional analysis and by combining the fundamental constants of quantum mechanics, relativity and gravity.
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